500 years of groundbreaking achievements of world medicine

The advent of thermometers, antibiotics and X-rays has radically changed the lives of humankind.

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According to CNN, prosthetic legs were first discovered in an Egyptian mummy.Ancient Romans and Greeks also recorded the false limbs.However, it was not until the 1500s that the technique of fitting artificial limbs achieved the first significant achievement with grasped prosthetic hands and kneeling legs.America has become a pioneer in this field since the civil war.Today, fitting prosthetic limbs has reached new heights with 3D printing techniques and hands can feel like normal hands.

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From the 10th century, Chinese people took scabs of smallpox patients, crushed them and blew into healthy people's noses to prevent disease.In 1976, Dr. Edward Jenner was recognized as the first person to use the vaccine after taking cowpea disease against human smallpox.50 years later, the vaccine achieved a new development with the introduction of subcutaneous injections and this is the key to help Louis Pasteur successfully develop rabies vaccine.By the 1920s, diphtheria, whooping cough, tetanus and tuberculosis vaccines were available.Since 1980, smallpox is completely wiped out.

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Galileo is considered the first person to invent a thermometer.But it was not until the mid-1800s that doctors could use thermometers to measure patients' body temperatures.In 1866, a 15cm compact thermometer was born.The first version comes in the form of a thin glass tube of mercury inside, attached to a piece of ivory or wood.

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The field of cosmetic surgery only really developed when the skin implant technology achieved a certain achievement in the late 1800s. After 200 years, French scientists performed the first part face transplant in the world. .Today, medicine is able to fully implant patients.

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From about 4,000 BC, people knew how to use herbal mixture with poppy flowers.By 1771, nitrous oxide was discovered.Chemist Humphry Davy identified this substance as a physical pain reliever, so it can be applied in operations where patients do not lose too much blood.Nitrous oxide is then used in extractions and then extended to other surgeries.

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Apsirin is an old medicine.Ancient Egyptians used willow bark to treat aches and pains without knowing it was a natural aspirin named salicylic acid, which helps reduce fever and infection.In the 19th century, salicylic acid was made into a small tablet as we see it today.

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The birth of birth control pills has helped half the world control births. Interestingly, the first contraceptive in the world named Enovid was introduced as a treatment for menstrual disorders. There are also warnings on the package of "This medicine can prevent pregnancy" .Enovid was licensed by the US Food and Drug Administration in 1960.

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In 1928, British scientist Alexander Fleming found penicillin, marking the turning point of human medicine as well as opening the era of antibiotics.Thanks to penicillin, the mortality rate of bacterial pneumonia has dropped from 18% during World War I to less than 1% during World War II.

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In 1944, for the first time, American scientists fertilized human eggs outside the uterus. On July 25, 1978, the first baby created from in vitro fertilization was Louise Joy Brown (England), born healthy, weighing 2.6kg. Louise is called the "miracle thing" of the family and human science.

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Scientists have sought to transplant human and animal organs from the 18th century, but in 1869 the first skin transplant was performed.The second organ transplant took place in the mid-20th century. An important step in the transplant field is the successful production of cyclosporine anti-rejection drugs.

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Accidentally discovered by Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, X-rays allow doctors to see inside the patient's body without surgery.Unfortunately, some scientists were too impatient to use X-rays but did not measure the consequences.In 1904, an assistant of Thomas Edison died of skin cancer after a daily exposure to radiation.

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By the beginning of the 20th century, surgery was still the only solution for cancer.In the 1900s, X-rays flourished and became new tools to identify and treat tumors.Besides, since the second world war, chemotherapy also began to be used.

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