The laws of dynamics are one of the important principles in modern physics, because they identify three basic physical quantities: temperature, energy and enthalpy in many different situations.
Recently, physicists said they found a gap in one of the laws of dynamics. This gap can create an environment that entails entropy or decline over time.
Thanks to the foundation of modern physics, almost everything in the modern universe can be explained in two hypotheses: general relativity for big things like stars, galaxies and even universe and quantum mechanics on the level of molecules.
In those two branches, we have four laws of thermodynamics , describing the heat energy transferred to and from different types of energy, and this effect can be seen in the form of different of material.
In short, if you want to know how energy has moved from a molecule to a black hole, you only need to apply the laws. Now, researchers recommend that you pay attention to the second law of thermodynamics. This law is about energy conversion in a system of used and unused objects.
The second law of thermodynamics refers to energy conversion in a closed system, which can be broken down by a small gap.(Photo: Pixabay).
When the energy used in a closed system is reduced, the unused energy increases, the enthalpy will increase.Enthalpy is a measure of energy disturbance in a closed system, which is proportional to the disorder and cannot be reversed.
The second law of thermodynamics is even less profound than the first. It says that the energy that cannot be created by itself cannot disappear, ensuring certain limits of the universe.
"The second law mainly tells us about the irreversible processes in the universe. Shows a time arrow that always goes straight and the fate of the universe is predetermined, cannot be changed." , physicist Alok Jha said.
Researchers at the Argonne National Laboratory of the US Energy Agency said they found a gap in the second law of thermodynamics, which would lead enthalpy to follow the opposite direction on a small scale and in a very short time.
They conducted a statistical basis of the second law, called H. theory. In the simplest form, theory H describes when you open the door between two rooms - a hot room, a cold room - eventually both will get warm temperatures.
But in fact, the molecules are not mapped before the path, so they will move very sporadically and often follow into groups rather than moving individual molecules.
To take a closer look at the experiment, the team decided to implement H theory at quantum scale. They performed using quantum information based on a series of abstract mathematical systems and applied it to solid physics, to create a new theoretical model H.
"This allows us to build an H-theory at the quantum level, which is related to what H-theory does at the observed physical level , " says Ivan Sadovskyy, a member of The team, said.
When implementing H theory at quantum scale, scientists reduced temporary enthalpy for a short time. They then compared this result with an 1867 experiment performed by Demon Maxwell.
Maxwell hypothesized that there was a demon sitting between those two hot and cold rooms, and only allowed the particles to move at a certain speed to pass, thereby controlling the flow of temperature, as a result. A room will warm up while a room will cool.
"The demon only allows the hot currents to pass, and the cold currents push away in another direction. Basically, the demon can mix these two flows," Avery Thompson said.
The Argonne laboratory has gone a step further by introducing a mathematical model to show that a system in such a quantum scale can be created, where enthalpy is reduced.
"Although the experiment was only carried out on a very small scale and the time was very short, its impact was very large. This shows us that Maxwell's demon could completely come true, or we can build a quantum motion machine in the future, "said team member Valerii Vinokur.
Looking ahead, the research team will expand the scale of the study. Theory H will be conducted on a larger scale in a closed system that may be simulated on a computer.