Finding vaccines, organ transplants, immunotherapy for cancer treatment are breakthroughs in world medicine over 200 years.
In 1796, Edward Jenner (England) tested the method of vaccination to tame smallpox virus. Since then, vaccines have been widely used and very effective. Smallpox robbed many lives during the 17th-18th centuries, completely eliminated by vaccines.
Then many other vaccines are prepared against dangerous diseases in the world, including smallpox, rabies, tuberculosis and cholera. Vaccines are now considered an important invention of humankind, helping to prevent many infections and non-infectious diseases.
From before BC, humans have conducted many experiments on anesthesia. In 1846, Dr. William TG Morton (USA) successfully used the anesthetic ether in surgery, opening a new page for medical history. Shortly thereafter, chloroform, a faster anesthesia, was widely used. However, chloroform brings many risks to patients, some deaths should be banned.
Over 150 years have passed, safer anesthetics have been developed, helping patients to reduce pain during surgery.
Before pathogen theory was introduced, many believed that the origin of the disease was "spontaneous" . In other words, ancient doctors believe that illnesses can appear in the air instead of airborne or through direct skin contact.
In 1861, with a simple experiment, the French microbiologist Louis Pasteur proved the source of the infectious disease due to pathogens attacking humans. This discovery marks an important milestone in medical history, changing the way to treat, control and prevent disease, prevent epidemics from taking thousands of lives every year such as plague, dysentery and typhoid fever. .
X-ray is the first medical imaging diagnostic technique in history. In 1895, German physicist Wilhelm Conrad Rӧntgen accidentally discovered this technique while experimenting with electric current through cathode ray tubes. Just overnight, his discovery completely changed the medical industry. In 1896, Glasgow Hospital opened the world's first radiology department.
Ultrasound has been included in the diagnostic imaging department since 1955. Doctors use high-frequency sound waves to create technical images that support diagnosis.
In 1967, computerized tomography (CT) technology was invented, using X-rays and computers to diagnose many different diseases. CT scanners have become an important diagnostic tool in modern medicine.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology was invented in 1973 by Paul Lauterbur. Nuclear magnetic resonance data produces detailed images of the body, detecting tumors, cysts, brain and spinal cord injury and a number of heart and liver problems.
Penicillin is the first antibiotic in the world. This discovery by scientist Alexander Fleming (England) in 1928 completely changed the battle with deadly bacteria.
More than 10 years later, Fleming's discovery was recognized, and American pharmaceutical companies produced mass penicillin for World War II.
Penicillin's appearance saved millions of people. Unfortunately, some increasingly antibiotic-resistant bacteria today lead to a global antibiotic-resistance crisis, prompting the medical industry to quickly find a way to treat bacterial resistance.
In December 1954, the first successful kidney transplant surgery was performed by Dr. Joseph Murray and Dr. David Hume in Boston (USA). Previously, there were many other transplant surgeries but all failed.
In 1963, the first lung transplant was performed. Five years later, the pancreas / kidney transplant was successfully performed, followed by liver and heart transplant surgery in 1967.
Organ transplants are becoming more complex. In 1998, the doctors succeeded in transplanting their hands, and in 2010 the whole face transplant surgery.
Antiviral drugs appeared in the 1960s, preventing the spread of viral diseases and stimulating the immune system to attack pathogens. Antiviral drugs are very important in the treatment and control of HIV / AIDS, Ebola and rabies.
The effect of stem cells in umbilical cord blood was discovered in the late 1970s. Stem cells have two characteristics, are specialized cells that can renew themselves through division even when not active. dynamic. Under certain conditions, they can be used to create any kind of human cell.
Stem cell therapy is currently used in bone marrow transplantation, treatment of blood disorders such as leukocytes, spinal cord injuries, neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and strokes. However, due to moral issues, researchers may face many obstacles when developing a cure based on stem cell therapy.
Immunotherapy, a method of stimulating the immune system to fight disease, has been studied for more than a century. In 1890 researcher William B. Coley (USA) injected the inactivated bacteria into cancer tumors and achieved effective treatment for some patients. In the 1950s, new immunotherapy took an important step forward, especially in the treatment of cancer.
Over the past decade, immunotherapy has become one of the most prominent cancer treatments.
Over the past ten years, research and application of artificial intelligence has significantly changed the quality of health care services. Humans are seeking ways to diagnose, treat, and prevent disease faster and smarter. Initial achievements of artificial intelligence are now applied in medicine as a diagnostic tool for detecting malignant tumors that the naked eye cannot detect, automated systems for giving treatment regimens for the disease. cancer patient .