Today, phrases such as "gene technology", "cell technology", "genetic engineering" . are often very attractive on newspaper headlines. They are also interesting topics of Hollywood movies. But what do these terms really mean, how are they affecting our lives?
"Gene technology", "genetic engineering", "genetic modification" all have similar meanings and are both a technology in modern biotechnology.
"Gene technology" is translated into Vietnamese as a gene technology, the process of creating mutated cells or organisms with new genes or new genes. Genetic engineering is the molecular biology techniques involved in causing changes in genetic material to meet a certain requirement. 'Genetic modification' is a genetic modification technique by creating recombinant DNA to transfer genes from one cell to another.
In essence, biotechnology uses living things to create or transform products, such as foods that humans eat. The name may sound modern, but it has been practically adopted by humans for a long time, such as to bake bread, people use live yeast to brew, help flour to expand, or when making pho cool, men use rennet (a type of rennet) containing enzymes to help freeze milk.
It was not until the 1950s that traditional biotechnology often yielded inaccurate results (highly dependent on experience and not always successful), and it took time. If you want to produce a special type of wheat and want it to ripen early, you will have to grow a variety of varieties and cross-breed and then follow the breed to maintain the good variety you want.
Scientists have discovered that DNA is located inside the cells of every organism, contained in a unit called chromosome and has a heredity from one generation to the next.
DNA stands for DeoxyriboNucleic Acid , a chemical molecule that contains small segments called genes, found in almost every cell of the organism.
Each gene will execute a number of encoded commands with genetic information that makes every creature carry its own characteristics.
They carry the information they need to make proteins - also known as "working" molecules - that perform specific tasks in the organism. Geneticist David Suzuki said: Some proteins act as bricks and mortar for the "build" task, so the body, including hair, skin, joints . and almost everything is bound human body. Other proteins are like molecular machines, building, programming, splitting genes, they build body parts, transport body exchange messages from the top of the head to the toes. For example, a gene can encode to create blue eyes, another gene will create red leaves, or membrane feet of ducklings . Many characteristics of the organism are the result A complex collection of different genes.
But how can DNA store all the coded information that has created the living world today?
All lies in the structure of the gene. This discovery brought the Nobel Prize for Medicine to James Watson and Francis in 1962. DNA sequences are twisted-pair (double-helix double circuits) . Most DNA molecules are made up of two biological polymer chains that twist evenly around an imaginary axis to form double helix.
These DNA circuits are called polynucleotides because their composition consists of nucleotide monomers. Each nucleotide is composed of one of four nitrogen nucleobase types - either cytosine (C), guanine (G), adenine (A), or thymine (T) - linked to deoxyribose sugar and a phosphate group. The nucleotides bind together into a DNA circuit by covalent bonding between the nucleotide sugar molecule and the nucleotide phosphate group to the next, forming a solid " phosphate " backbone backbone . Each helix is a genetic coding, used for each gene.
Modern biotechnology has been taking off since it has been discovered that all organisms use the same genetic coding. The goal of geneticists is to give, enhance or remove some of the special characteristics of an organism, based on the properties they want to maintain or break down.
Genetic technology is just a branch of modern biotechnology. It is a series of techniques used to control or edit genes, and more importantly, to move them between species that have nothing to do with each other, we call recombinant technology. DNA (recombinant DNA technology) . For example, genes from a plant can be introduced into an animal's body, or can be transferred from an animal to a plant, even by introducing the genes of microorganisms (such as viruses, bacteria). into the body of the plant and vice versa. New organisms created in this way are called genetically modified organisms.
Often gene technology involves manipulating the cell's ability to make proteins, thereby creating new proteins to perform new functions. Genetically modified organisms are collectively called Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs). Genetically modified foods that we have heard about in the media are the product of gene technology.
Genetic technology also has other applications. In medicine, gene therapy will apply to diseases that are related to gene formation. It is also used to create new vaccines and drugs, or to map human genes to improve diagnostic and diagnostic techniques. Genetic technology is also aimed at creating genetically modified animals as a source to supply organs and tissues in health.