It has been nearly 50 years since Apollo 11 brought heroes to the moon. Neil Armstrong's footprint is still there, when the Moon has no atmosphere, there is no wind to blow away the important mark of mankind on a rock floating in the Universe.
But the mark we left on Hang's face is not only a historical footprint: there are also 96 human feces bags somewhere, the 'achievement' of a total of six Apollo missions . The brave astronauts have "gone heavy" on the Moon, leaving the diapers containing feces in specially sealed bags, at the threshold of reaching out to humanity's universe.
We do not know what fate these bags of faeces are, and the scientists who learn how to scavenge, they want to know what is the result of composting on the Moon. They want to know if there is life in the sealed bag.
Without anyone saying it, we also know that human feces are a formidable 'chemical weapon' with rotten smell to the human body, but it is the bacteria that cause those horrid smells. In human feces is a living world of life. About 50% of stool volume includes bacteria, a large community of more than 1,000 different species of bacteria that live in the human gut.
The Earth carried over 3.9 billion years of life, evidence that during that time the surface of the Moon was still bored with stones and stones.
With the mission of Apollo 11 , we introduce to Earth bacteria the most extreme environment they have ever come to, a trip to experience the Universe life on a planet without atmosphere. Completely unintentional, astronauts create an experiment that has the potential to change human understanding of extraterrestrial life.
Bringing it back, it is likely that we will answer the question: How does life survive, when placed in a difficult environment like the Moon? And if the bacteria still live well on the Moon, will they survive throughout the cosmic journey, to bring life to other planets?
After Neil Armstrong climbed down the ladder, placed on the moon a historic footprint, he took a picture of which a garbage bag was clearly visible. It's not clear in the stool bag (the Vox news site also contacted Buzz Aldrin to clarify the situation, he didn't answer), but according to documents kept in the NASA History Office, there's a high chance of having a bag. like this on the Moon, including human feces.
Astronaut on Apollo 16 mission, Charlie Duke spent a total of 71 hours on the Moon in 1972. During a call to verify the information, he confirmed the crew had left a few "by-products after eat ' on the Moon.
'We did that,' he said . 'Leave urine in a sealed container . and I believe our stomachs have a little bit of the sea - not sure - those things fit in a garbage bag. We also threw some garbage bags on the Moon's surface. '
He did not think the bacteria would survive, the garbage would be eliminated by solar radiation.'I would be surprised if there was anything alive'. And before you condemn the act of littering brave people, think about safety in their return journey.
' The Moon Mission is very carefully calculated, and weight is one of the most important factors ,' says Andrew Schuerger, cosmological scientist from the University of Florida, who recently completed the report. The science of bacteria exists on the Moon, says. ' So if you take some moon stones, you will have to throw back some leftovers to make sure the trip is safe .'
During the flight to the Moon, astronauts will have to defecate by: 'a plastic bag is attached to the buttock, to store the waste. An experience that is not pleasant, that makes astronauts not as happy as you think.
When reaching the Moon, astronauts will use 'maximum absorbent underwear' to 'keep the amount of waste'.
Removing all the beautiful words, we condense into: Astronauts must wear diapers to go to the toilet.
We are still in the midst of the 50th anniversary of Apollo 11 bringing astronauts to space (July 20, 1969 - July 20, 2019), more than ever, people are full of interest in a journey. to the Moon. There were ambitious plans, bringing people to the Moon as early as 2028, there were funds for building a Moon Station, the premise for us to go to Mars.
But wanted to go to Mars and go further, we need to open nearly 100 bags of stool, urine and gastric juice (due to vomiting) that are lying on the Moon.
The biggest question: is there anything alive in that sealed bag? When we know the truth, we will better understand the upper limit that life can endure. Life is miraculous, I'm not sure what happens until the bag is opened.
Besides, we will know the result of people littering on other planets, or even we can drop seeds on it and let life grow by itself, when we discover new planets. With only the above reasons, we have seen how much we need to return to the Moon.
However, when using the actual science to see the problem, Professor Schuerger said that the survival rate of bacteria in the bag is quite low . Not long ago, the scientist and a number of colleagues ran a software simulator to analyze what could have happened, whether the tiny organisms in the stool bags survived. It is true that the bag is very tight, but the condition of the Moon has been so harsh for 50 years.
The moon has no magnetic field to counter cosmic radiation, no ozone layer to block ultraviolet rays from the Sun. The vacuum environment has never been beneficial for life, especially when the night temperature reaches -173 degrees Celsius, up to 100 degrees Celsius during the day. Throwing a kettle on the Moon during the day, you can boil it.
High probability is that the organisms that live in the stool bags have died long ago. But they are still the "highest life-containing objects ever left on the Moon's surface."
" Bacteria that exist without much shelter ," said Margaret Race, a biologist from the Extraterrestrial Intelligence Search Institute (SETI).
On Earth, bacteria exist in places we don't expect: near hot hydrothermal vents on the ocean floor, 3,000 meters deep in Greenland's cold glacier. In the Apollo 16 mission, scientists tried to allow 9 species of organisms to come into contact with the harsh conditions of the universe (including viruses, yeasts, filamentous fungi, bacteria and invertebrates), some The creature survived, even for a few days.
"Life has no definition with rules like" Don't overheat this temperature, salinity or acidity is so high, " said researcher Margaret Race. 'Whenever I keep my eyes looking, I will see life again.'
In order for bacteria to survive (or at least revive) in a waste bag, in the short term, we must ensure some prerequisite factors. First, the bag must be completely sealed to retain moisture, because the bacteria will not grow without moisture.
' In a humid environment of a tight-fitting, most likely bacterium will multiply itself ,' said Mark Lupisella, a NASA scientist who has done research on the stool in his pocket, in preparation for the mission to pick up feces. on the moon.
There is no strong wind on the Moon that rips the bag, but the temperature changes throughout the day can cause the bag to break out.
'Besides, we are not sure what the inner part of the bag will look like when facing sunlight, ' Schuerger said. If the temperature reaches 100 degrees Celsius, the bacteria on the Moon may only live for a few days or several weeks.
Lupisella said if there was no life in the stool, the bag itself was still very noticeable. Scientists can still find out how long bacteria live, see if it evolves to adapt to a particularly harsh environment. ' It sounds a bit far-fetched, but it's entirely possible that these life forms mutate very early .'
The researcher believes that, despite believing only a very small percentage, that natural selection has reached the stool bag, allowing the bacteria to evolve to continue to exist. It must be confirmed, this is the harshest environment that our life ever came to. We need to know in the universe, life is enough 'stubborn' to continue to exist.
There are still other possibilities: bacteria can be revived or not.Most likely they will "hibernate" to wait for the right time , and when they are brought back, exposed to special environments, most likely the bacteria will resurrect. We can revive bacteria hiding in the ice dating back tens of thousands of years, the bacteria living in the feces on the Moon are only a few decades easy.
If the bacteria live a certain amount of time on the Moon, they will absolutely be able to live on Mars - where the atmosphere is (though somewhat thin), the environment is more pleasant (compared to the Moon) and as much as evidence that Mars has water (albeit a little bit).
One of the questions is still in the hearts of scientists: 'Did Mars ever have life?' Based on the known factors, it is likely that life on Mars will look like bacteria, or any other single-celled form.
But if we get to Mars, then unfortunately spread that part here on the surface of the Red Planet, perhaps the answer to this question will forever disappear. We don't know if the bacteria on Mars are native, or they come from astronauts' feces. If the bacteria originated from the Earth were interested in the living conditions of Mars, we wouldn't be able to stop it from spreading.
Two years before the Apollo 11 ship successfully performed the Moon mission, the human race signed the United Nations Cosmic Treaty, declaring 'avoid all acts of cosmic contamination and distant objects'. But when sad to go to the toilet in a shadowless place, it will be difficult to honor the words spoken since 1967; Unfortunately, the system contains fertilizers that have problems, the consequences will be unpredictable.
While we continue to plan to set foot on the Moon again, we need to carefully calculate it so as not to affect the existing 'antiquities' . According to many sources and calculations, landing in a radius of 100 meters around the old ship area will damage the things that leave the Moon.
It is necessary to do everything to protect those assets: in addition to historical value, it is full of scientific values. We need to go back to get some bags of feces, quickly grab the uncertain future, don't know which way.
Have you ever heard the theory of 'Life on Earth from another planet' ? Imagine a meteorite crashing into the Moon, making feces (and bacteria in it, assuming they survived) into space. Can those bacteria become sources of life at a distant planet?
Does the origin of life on Earth come from . alien excrement? Researcher Lupisella claims: currently there is no theory about this possibility, but based on science, this is entirely possible.
If bacteria on the Moon's faecal bags still survive, or sleep quietly to wait for the resurrection date, it can be assumed that bacteria survive on the interplanetary journey, even reaching other star systems to sow. sprinkle life.
'Whether a simple life form can spread to the whole universe like the way radio waves do, or they need to wait a billion years for a species to grow high enough, to make a space ship take life to another planet ? ' , planetary scientist Phil Metzger said. 'This is just one of the many important scientific questions we can answer when we return to the Moon.'
Life itself is still miraculous, even if life exists in the rotten world of manure.