Construction time: 1475 onwards
Location: Moscow, Russia
Some of the most famous architectural forms are more resounding than the Moscow Kremlin for decades since the "Kremlin" represents a mysterious force. In fact, many medieval Russian cities have "Kremlin" power - or fortifications of fortifications - but other Kremlin are not famous or known by the Kremlin in Moscow. This can be explained at many levels, but the rationale is simple: Power.
Although Moscow was built around 1147, it is a relatively new city among many of Russia's ancient cities, but developed through a cruel circumstance movement until Russia was dominated.The Kremlin, a fortress in the heart of the city, has an approximation of a river triangle. A powerful place in the Duchy of Muscovite - and later Russia in general - the Kremlin included many regional cathedrals as well as the government's residence until Peter the Great moved the capital to St Petersburg in the year. 1711 . The Kremlin also has many important administrative buildings, monasteries and smaller churches used by the royal court.
Kremlin diagram (Photo: architectnetwork)
The Kremlin wall became a symbol of Russian power thanks to much of its famous appearance to Russia's imagination, especially when local architects added a spiral at the tower in the 17th century. The main wall and wall are very similar to Italian fortifications Quattrocento, at the time of construction of the Kremlin in Moscow, this technique has long been obsolete in Italy.
In the 1460s, the Kremlin's existing limestone walls, dating to the end of the 14th century, were about to need urgent restoration. (Photo: capitaltours) Local contractors are recruited to repair patchwork but for basic reconstruction, Ivan III must head to Italy to find a construction specialist. From 1485 to 1516, the old fortress was replaced by walls and brick towers. The wall extends up to 2,235m with a thickness varying from 3.5 to 9m, with a special Italian "tail swallow" hole.
Of the 20 towers highlight the Kremlin wall, the most elaborate tower located at the main entrance or entrance. Among the most towering towers is Frolow Tower (later Spassky Tower, or Savior), first built by Vasily Ermolin in 1464-1466 but Pietro Antonio Solan rebuilt in 1491, from Milan to Moscow in 1490. The crown was added by Bazhen Ogurtsov and an Englishman named Christopher Halloway in 1624 - 1625. In the southeast corner of the city wall, Beklemishev tower (1487 - 1488, there was an octagonal spiral from 1680) ) built by Marco Friazin, he often works with Solari. This tower and similar towers in the Kremlin suggest comparison with the fortress built in Italy.
Solari plays an important role in the restoration of the Kremlin, not only with 4 entrance towers, Borovitsky tower, Constantine and Helen, Frolov tower, and Nikolsky tower (all built between 1490 and 1493), as well. like Binh tower, the magnificent workshop and the Kremlin wall facing the Red Square, he also built "Multi-faceted Palace" - Granovitaica palata, named it due to the rough plastering on the lozenge-shaped limestone in the face. main money. Used to organize banquets and host guests in the Kremlin complex, the construction started by Marco Friazin in 1487.
Ivan Dai Square Square Tower: 81m high
The rebuilding of Moscow's main cathedral, "Mother Mary rests in peace , " began in the early 1470s with the support of the great Prince Ivan III and Metropolitan Philip, the head of the Russian Orthodox church. The local builders proved incapable of undertaking such a massive and complicated project, when a part of the wall fell, Ivan asked for help from Italian architect and engineer Aristotle Fioravanti, to Moscow in 1475. He was ordered to model the construction of the Cathedral. While his design incorporates a number of Russian-Byzantine style features (especially the massive cupon roof in the middle, and smaller cupon roofs at the corners), the architect also offers many innovations. structure: solid oak pillars for foundation, iron pull to support the dome and hard bricks (instead of stones) to build the dome and walls under the cupola roof.
The Kremlin looks across the river, from the southwest (Photo: studyrussian)
The limestone exterior reflects the perfect proportions of the parts protruding from the main part of the edge in the diagram, and the inner part is constructed of round columns instead of massive wall restraints - lighter and more abundant. more time than all other churches in Moscow region. During the same period people also witnessed the construction of smaller churches in the traditional Russian style such as Robe's German Church (1484 - 1488) and the Church of the Annunciation (1848-1489).
All of the Kremlin saints were ordered by Ivan III, including the Cathedral of the Archangel Michael, built by Aleviz Novy in 1505-1508. The work demonstrates the most esoteric characteristics of the "Italian period." "In the Kremlin, and still symbolizes the return to more traditional forms of Russian transitional churches. Motif "shells" - a characteristic of Venice soon became popular among architects in Moscow - creating a definite emphasis on how the outer walls were divided into a series of page reliefs. ladder, arches and wall restraints. Wall paintings in the interior were conducted in the 17th century and included, in addition to religious themes, there were portraits of Russian rulers, including the burial authorities in the cathedral from that. the 16th century to the end of the 17th century.
Night Kremlin (Photo: bestofrussia)
The last monument and also the culmination of the reconstruction of the Kremlin was Ivan the Great Bell Tower, which started as the Archangel Church in 1505 and completed the work in 1508. Almost nothing is known about architect builds the Bell Tower, Bon Friazin. But it was clear that he was a brilliant engineer, not only because the 60m-high bell tower was still standing after so many fires and natural disasters that often destroyed much of the Kremlin, did the Bell Tower still fail? the decline after the explosion of French explosives in 1812 showed that it was enough to raise two adjacent buildings. The bell tower, the height increased by 21m during the reign of Boris Godunov, the pillow on the solid brick wall was 5m thick at the foot and 2.5m on the second floor. The first floor wall was reinforced with iron beams placed in the masonry. .
The most significant addition in the 17th century in the Kremlin was the 12-apostle Church, because the Nikon Patriarch ordered as part of the Patriarchal Palace in the Kremlin complex. This massive church was originally devoted to worshiping the apostle Phillip, but was implicitly paying homage to Metropolitan Phillip, who was martyred by opposition to Ivan IV's terror. Design and detail this massive brick church, built in 1652 - 1656, from the model of 12th century limestone churches in Vladimir. Nikon intends to return to the correct symbolic shape in the church design.
The Kremlin of the Russian period
In the first half of the 18th century, Russian authorities were preoccupied with the construction of the new capital, St Petersburg. But under the reign of Catherine the Great, the Kremlin once again became the king's attention target. Catherine sponsors a plan to rebuild the entire complex, including the city walls, in the New Classical style. Fortunately, these plans don't go anywhere. Immediately, Catherine placed an order for a talented architect in Moscow under the neo-Neo-Matvei Kazakov school to design one of the most important national-scale works in the reign of the Queen - Senate in the Kremlin. . After the legal system reform in 1763, Moscow was the second capital, designated the headquarters of two of the empire's supreme legal institutions.
(Photo: bestofrussia) Kazakov's master design exploits a large but inconvenient space inserted into the northeast corner of the Kremlin to create a 4-story triangular structure. The diagram is very symmetrical, with 2 wings inside creating a more convenient passage between the sides of the triangle and forming 3 yards. At the top of one of these edges is the striking feature of the entire structure - the large circular room is visible from the Kremlin's eastern wall. The large circular room is the main meeting space for the Senate or the Supreme Civil Court to work in accordance with its function. Turning around is the Doric colonnade, the magnificent interior is magnificent with Corinthian columns and reliefs of Gavrill Zamaraev's fabled characters. The upper part consists of large plastered portraits of Russian princes and Tsar in the classical form.
In the 19th century, Nicholas I launched a major reconstruction of the Kremlin (1839-1849), which was severely degraded during the French occupation in 1812 and was later repaired. In his design, architect Konstantin Ton built a surface facade for the Kremlin higher than the Moscow River, and created a stylish artistic connection with the Terem Palace, the Multi-Palace Palace and the Annunciation Cathedral. inside. For the interior design of electricity, Ton collaborated with Friedrich Richter court architect, combining Neoclassical, Baroque, Gothic and Medieval motifs. Ton also designed the adjacent workshop work (1844 - 1851), with his historical style to reflect the function of the building as a museum to keep some of the most sacred historical sites of Russia.
Kremlin of Soviet Russia
With the relocation of Soviet Russia to 1918, the Kremlin once again became a power site in Russia. However, this proves to be a bit of fortunate blending when some of the most revered monuments are being destroyed to have a building ground for government agencies. Only after Joseph Stalin died, the Kremlin was once again open to visitors.
The most significant addition during the Soviet period to the entire Parliament House (1956 - 1961) was designed by Mikhail Posokhin and many others, looking like a modern concert hall, with a rectangular outline. stone facets covered by narrow towers and multi-storey pillars consisting of sheet glass. The only characteristic of the building's gentle appearance is that there is no contrast with other historical buildings in the complex, still considered the most important cultural temple in Russia.
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