When born, soap was not respected because of its association with the lower class. Later, with the development of science and technology, soap was proved by researchers to be a very good detergent and used widely.
There are many theories about the birth of soap.
The first hypothesis leans toward an event 3,000-4,500 years ago in the historic Sumerian region in southern Mesopotamia (present-day southern Iraq). At that time, the textile industry in Sumer was very developed and provided fabric for most countries in Mesopotamia.
Soap is no stranger to people around the world. When the Covid-19 pandemic appeared, soap became more and more important when it was able to kill and wash away surface bacteria - (Image: GETTY IMAGES).
Sumer then had many large-scale production centers with more than 10,000 laborers and hundreds of thousands of sheep raised for fur. Normally, in order to dye wool properly, weavers must remove lanolin fat from wool before dyeing and must be done manually.
The stages of cutting, sewing, dyeing and manufacturing woolen garments are mainly done by women. One day, Ninisina, a girl believed by historical researchers to be one of the craftsmen, accidentally noticed drops of fat from the wool when falling on the pile of charcoal that would clump. These lumps, when interacted with water, will form bubbles and wash away other quickly.
That is the most simple and primitive soap-making formula. These "soaps" were then used by weavers to clean their textiles.
The second hypothesis proposed by historical researchers is that about 600 BC in the ancient Roman empire, a group of women "accidentally discovered" that clothes were washed on the Tiber River under the sincerity. Sapo (Rome) will be cleaner than other rivers. That's because a layer of ash and animal fat spilled from the shrines at the top of the hill, combined with the river water to form a special detergent.
The names "saponification ", "soap" ("soap" in English or "savon" in French) are derived from the hillside of Sapo.
The use of wood ashes and animal fats for cleaning also appeared in ancient Spain and England.
300 years later, an Egyptian chemist, Zosimos of Panopilos, invented the soap making process. This formula according to explorers, pilgrims and merchants gradually spread to many other countries.
At the time of its appearance, soap was not taken into consideration, although researchers proved it had a very good cleansing effect. It was not until the eighth century that an Arab intellectual, Jabir Ibn Hayyan, had the first records of the use of soap for bathing.
The reason is that it is used primarily for the purpose of cleaning stains on the floor, washing clothes and other items without having to wash your hands. Especially when this labor was often performed by the slaves, the soap was also unknowingly equated as something of a lower class.
In the early days, soap production was an exclusive technique that only small manufacturers could produce.
Another factor that prevents people from washing their hands with soap is that it is very expensive.
In the early days, soap production was an exclusive technique that only small manufacturers could produce. Over time, the soap making formula became more widely known, but it was still expensive because the main ingredients from animal and vegetable fats and oils were not always available.
Soap prices dropped significantly in 1791 when a Frenchman named LeBlanc discovered the chemical process that made soap cheaper.
More than 20 years later, another Frenchman discovered that the relationship between glycerin, fat and acid marked the beginning of modern soap production. With 1,800 soap ingredient production methods invented later, soap became a universal product.
Soap previously prepared by the saponification reaction produces sodium salt (hard soap / cake) or potassium (soft soap). Both soaps precipitate with calcium and magnesium ions so they cannot be washed in hard water.
Later, soap made from oil overcame this drawback.
Since the middle of the nineteenth century, soap was divided into product lines for different purposes such as laundry soap, hand soap, dishwash . with all kinds of cakes, soft different.
By the 1970s, liquid hand washes were invented and became extremely useful today.