Mysterious deadly venom of giant jellyfish has no solution

Scientists have yet to know the exact complex deadly venom of giant jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai.

Weighing in at 200kg, the giant jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai , commonly known as the Nomura jellyfish , is one of the largest jellyfish in the world. It is the cause of attacks with hundreds of thousands of people in China, South Korea and Japan every year.

When the sting occurs, the creature's venom causes immediate and intense pain, followed by redness and swelling. In rare cases, the injection site can lead to shock, serious injury or even death. But most importantly, we still don't know what makes this creature's venom so dangerous.

Picture 1 of Mysterious deadly venom of giant jellyfish has no solution
This is one of the largest jellyfish in the world.

In a new study, scientists have found another way to analyze the incredible venom of giant jellyfish through genome sequencing, transcription and protein.

Scientists say they have discovered an extremely complex mixture of more than 200 toxins related to the injection, each of which can target specific organs or harm the human body system.

"Although we have tried to purify lethal toxins from the venom of giant jellyfish N. nomurai, it is difficult to separate them from other proteins," the authors said.

In other words, these toxins are complex, difficult to separate without the need for other types of experiments.

In the study, the team cut and froze fresh tentacles from a living Nemopilema nomurai jellyfish, before using a centrifuge to collect prickling cells in jellyfish containing a venom coil.

The researchers then separated them into different groups and injected a portion of the protein into mice to see how dangerous it was, and the results highlighted a group of 13 toxin-like proteins that could have serious consequences. Some target potassium channels, while others work to clot.

On a larger scale, consequences include blockage of the heart's blood vessels, degeneration of blood vessels, cell death in the liver, changes in the kidneys and pneumonia.

Analyzing rats' dead bodies, the researchers found that lung and edema infections were the most common cause of death, consistent with human reports.

However, the authors admit it is difficult to say for sure how each of these toxins actually kills animals, in particular they can work in tandem.

A better understanding of this mysterious jellyfish's toxin may help us develop an antidote when it is attacked by the jellyfish, but first we need to discover whether the toxins are potentially lethal. This person is equally dangerous to humans.

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