Thang Long Royal Citadel is a complex of architectural buildings built by the kings in many historical periods and become the most important monument in the system of Vietnamese relics.
The relic center of Thang Long - Hanoi Citadel has a total area of 18,395ha, including: the archaeological site of 18 Hoang Dieu and the remaining relics in Hanoi ancient citadel area such as Hanoi flagpole, Doan Mon, Dien Thien, D67, Hau Lau, Bac Mon, and walls and 8 gates of supply in the Nguyen Dynasty.
This relic is located in Ba Dinh district and is limited by the north is Phan Dinh Phung street; in the south is Bac Son street and the National Assembly; west is Hoang Dieu Street, Doc Lap Street and National Assembly House; to the southwest is Dien Bien Phu street and to the east is Nguyen Tri Phuong street.
In 1009, Ly Cong Uan was crowned king, founded Ly dynasty. In July of the autumn of 1010, the king announced the royal capital (the transfer of capital) to move the capital from Hoa Lu (Ninh Binh) to Dai La Citadel . Right after moving the capital, Ly Cong Uan urgently built Thang Long Citadel , and it was completed in early 1011.
When newly built, Thang Long Citadel was built according to the three-city citadel model: the outer ring is called La Citadel or Citadel, surrounding the whole capital city and following the water of 3 rivers: Red River, To Lich river and Kim Nguu river. Citadel is the residence and residence of the people. The second circle (in the middle) is the Imperial Citadel, the main court, the residence and work of the officials in the court. The smallest inner citadel is the Forbidden City , the only place for kings, queens and a few women and girls.
After the throne, the Tran took over Thang Long Citadel and continued to renovate and build new buildings. Sang to the life of Le So, the Citadel and the Citadel were built and expanded. During the period from 1516 to 1788 during the Mac and Le Trung Hung dynasties, Thang Long Citadel was destroyed many times.
At the beginning of 1789, King Quang Trung moved the capital, Thang Long was only Bac Thanh . In the Nguyen Dynasty, the remains of Thang Long Citadel were transferred to Phu Xuan in turn to serve the construction of the new citadel. Only electricity Kinh Thien and Hau Lau were kept to serve the kings for the Nguyen kings whenever they cost the North.
In 1805, King Gia Long demolished the walls of the Old Citadel and built Hanoi Citadel in the style of Vauban of France with much smaller scale. In 1831, during a major administrative reform, King Minh Mang renamed Thang Long to Hanoi . When occupied all of Indochina, the French chose Hanoi as the capital of the French Indochina federation and the Citadel of Hanoi was destroyed to take land for offices and barracks for the French. Since 1954, when our troops took over the liberation of the capital, Hanoi Citadel became the headquarters of the Ministry of Defense. Thus, the first value of the central area of Thang Long - Hanoi Citadel is expressed in that it is almost a "history of living" flowing throughout the whole length of history over 10 centuries of Thang Long - Hanoi. , from the pre-Thang Long Dai La citadel to the present day.
Historically, the Imperial Citadel of Thang Long underwent a lot of changes, but the center of the Citadel, especially the Forbidden City was almost unchanged. Only the interior architecture has passed many times of construction and repair. It is this feature that explains why on the archaeological site 18 Hoang Dieu , architectural relics and relics overlap through historical periods. These relics have relationships and interconnectedness, forming a complex but very complex and attractive whole, reflecting clearly the relationship of urban planning and architectural space, also as a continuation between dynasties in the history of Thang Long capital construction . That is the outstanding and unique value of the central relic of Thang Long-Hanoi Citadel. Here, archaeologists also unearthed a large number of ceramics that were used daily in the palace through the ages. These discoveries have really opened a new door for the study of Thang Long pottery and pottery used in Thang Long palace through dynasties, which is a concrete testament to the high level of development of economy and literature. chemical. In addition, many coins, ceramics of China, Japan, West Asia . found here are evidence that Thang Long is the center of cultural exchange with regional countries and receiving elite values of humanity.
At 20:30 on July 31, 2010 in the Brasilia capital of Brazil, the UNESCO Committee adopted a Resolution recognizing the central relic of Thang Long - Hanoi Citadel as a world cultural heritage based on 3 targets. Highlights: