Low-carbon biological materials: Many environmentally friendly

The earth is heating up due to the greenhouse effect of polluting emissions, with the main being carbon dioxide. A quarter of the carbon dioxide comes from burning fuel for transportation vehicles.

Therefore, the use of biofuels , especially low-carbon fuels , to replace fossil fuels will significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions from vehicles, reducing the greenhouse effect. , increase the ability to protect the environment, and combat climate change.

Biofuel, biofuel , are fuels formed from organic biological compounds such as plant and animal fats, plant carbohydrates (wheat flour, rice, corn, potatoes, cassava .), cellulose in agricultural and industrial wastes (straw, organic fertilizer, sawdust, discarded wood .).

Picture 1 of Low-carbon biological materials: Many environmentally friendly
Biofuels.

Currently, we are using three main biofuel groups:

(1) Biogas (biogasoline) uses ethanol as an additive for lead; (2) Biodiesel (biodiesel) is prepared by derivatives from some types of bio-oil (vegetable oil, animal fat) through trans esterification with alcohol, most commonly methanol ; and

(3) Biogas (biogas) is organic gases such as methane and other peer, created through the fermentation of organic biomass of agricultural wastes, mainly cellulose, forming products in the form of gas. Biogas can be used as a gas fuel in place of petroleum gas.

Picture 2 of Low-carbon biological materials: Many environmentally friendly
Low-carbon fuel.

Carbon intensity

The intensity of carbon, carbon intensity, of a fuel is the number of grams of carbon dioxide CO 2 produced when using this fuel creates 1 megajoule of energy. Carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and other hydrocarbons absorb light energy to warm up the earth, measuring carbon intensity helps us evaluate and compare the harmful effects of fuels. For example, compare biodiesel produced from soybeans with emissions from exhaust pipes after burning fossil fuels.

Low carbon fuel

These are low-carbon biofuels so they are clean and less polluting carbon than fossil fuels and oil. Currently low-carbon fuels are natural gas such as compressed natural gas, CNG, and liquefied petroleum gas (liquefied petroleum gas, LPG).

Low-carbon fuel will minimize global warming, preserve and enhance native land, water, forest and ecosystem resources and improve the economic well-being of farmers, workers and communities.

Producing clean biofuels

From materials such as agricultural waste, waste oil, grass, algae, waste biomass, agricultural wood biomass, waste after recycling and many others, companies producing clean fuels have processes separate to convert into fuel: (1) Production of ethanol alcohol with distillation process as in wine production; (2) Gasifying raw materials into basic chemicals and rebuilding them into hydrocarbon chains like in crude oil. Then refining crude oil to produce gasoline, diesel or jet fuel; and (3) Using 'air-to-fuel' technology , carbon dioxide captured from outdoor air will be converted into neutral carbon fuel thanks to renewable energy sources.

Clean energy company Carbon Engineering, Canada, founded in 2009 by David Keith, Professor of Harvard University, used the technology to collect CO2 directly from the atmosphere (Direct Air Capture, DAC). This captured carbon dioxide is converted into neutral carbon fuel by renewable energy sources, according to the 'air to fuel' process (air to fuel, A2F). This A2F technology allows large-scale production of fuels such as gasoline, diesel and Jet-A jet fuel without using crude oil. These fuels are very clean compared to fossil fuels, zero greenhouse gas emissions and zero carbon emissions, so Carbon Engineering has been funded by a number of government agencies and investors.

Something discussed

Pollution pollution, especially with CO2, causing global warming is a concern of the world. Therefore, the use of biofuels is a mandatory trend for humans.

Picture 3 of Low-carbon biological materials: Many environmentally friendly
Pollution pollution, especially with CO2, causing global warming is a concern of the world.

Currently, biogas biogas systems have been widely used in many countries around the world. Because it is produced from composting, fermentation of organic biomass of agricultural waste, landfill sites, biogas and energy supply, both treating waste and protecting the environment.

In Vietnam, although the development of biogas has been carried out for a long time, most of them are small, household size, and biogas is mainly for cooking or lighting. According to MARD, the country has about 500,000 small-scale biogas digesters and farmer households; and although there are 17,000 pig farms, there are only nearly 100 commercial biogas plants, 100-200m3 in volume, accounting for 0.3%, and there are no biogas power plants that are connected to the national grid. !

With carbon engineering technology, humans can collect carbon dioxide in the air and combine it with hydrogen to create neutral carbon liquid fuels like gasoline or traditional diesel. Current machinery, engines, vehicles can use these synthetic fuels without any structural transformation. The big problem with alternative fuels, and also the challenge of any new energy invention, is the production cost: moving 1 ton of carbon dioxide to create low-carbon fuel will cost between 94 and 232 USD, while fossil fuels are only 50-60 USD / barrel of crude oil. Hopefully in the future, when the scale of production increases to only about 1 USD / liter of low-carbon fuel as companies promise !!!

In short, low-carbon biofuels, including zero carbon power such as wind, solar, geothermal and nuclear, and lower-level energy (low-level) emissions, such as natural gas and carbon dioxide capture technology, are sources of less greenhouse gas emissions than fossil energy sources. If properly developed, biofuels will both provide the energy used and solve the pollution of pollution and greenhouse gas pollution to minimize this global warming.

TS.BS Trần Bá Thoại

Member of Executive Board of Vietnam Endocrinology Association

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