(Scientists have discovered many important evidence of how pathogens respond to Irish potatoes, to adapt to spread germs among different plants by Researching unprecedented details about how Phytophthora infestans , a fungus that causes blight in potatoes and tomatoes today, evolved to target other crops. The research results will help scientists develop more plants with better resistance in the future.
Researchers from Oxford University and The Stainsbury Laboratory, Norwich, have studied unknown details about how the blight-causing fungus in potatoes and tomatoes today has advanced. chemical to spread to other plants.
This study was published in Science magazine on January 31, 2014. This is the first study to show that, the way pathogens change their target, from one species to another through molecular-level changes. The researchers examined biochemical differences between the fungus Phytophthora infestans and the sister species Phytophthora mirabilis , a fungal pathogen divided from P. infestans about 1300 years ago targeting Mirabilis jalapa, a common species. Known as the four-hour flower. They found that each species of pathogen secretes specific substances to neutralize the resistance of their target host plants.
'Plants with enzymes called protease enzymes play a key role in their resistance systems,' said Dr. Renier van der Hoorn, co-author of the study from the Department of Plant Sciences. Oxford University said. 'When a plant is infected, protease enzymes help them attack pathogens that spread and create immune responses. P. infestans secretes substances called effector reactants that disrupt the protease enzyem in potatoes and tomatoes. These highly specialized specializations prevent specific host proteases, like a lock into a lock. '
The stimulating reagents secreted by P. infestans are less effective against protease enzymes in plants other than for example in four-hour flowering plants, when they are not suitable in 'locks' . Researchers have found that P. mirabilis has developed effectors that invalidate the resistance of four-hour flower plants, but does not cause long-term effects against potato plants or tomato plants.
'For the first time, we have found a molecular mechanism directly based on transformation in host plantation , ' said Dr Dr van der Hoorn. 'We have observed specialized weapons. The specificity of the pathogen that destroys, an important family of effectors called 'EPIC' can overcome the resistance of undetected plants to disable proteases. EPIC effectors secreted by P. infestans have evolved to match the structure of potato proteases like P. mirabilis has developed effectors suitable for protease enzymes of four-hour flowers ".
'If we can propagate plants with proteases that can block EPIC effectors, we can prevent these crops from being' hacked in 'and thus creating many plants with good resistance. than. In the next decade or so, we plan to exploit the specialized nature of these effectors to develop protease enzymes that resist their activity or even trap them and destroy pathogens. Potato and tomato plants with such proteases can resist pathogens that cause blight, and in combination with other disease-resistant traits can provide another 'resistant' wall against germs. sick'.